The 20-year-old signed the six-month loan deal on Thursday to beat the transfer deadline for the Eredivisie league.
He moves from Belgian giants Anderlecht in search of playing time after seeing limited opportunities in the Jupiler League.
Vitesse will have the option of giving the Ghanaian youngster a permanent contract at the end of the season if they are impressed with his performance.
The former Asante Kotoko player scored 25 goals for the youth side of Anderlecht and could only make five appearances with the first team.
With first opportunities still limited, Mohammed opted to go on loan to continue with his development in Europe.
He played for Kotoko before leaving to join the Belgian side in 2017 after impressing with the Porcupine Warriors.
Vitesse were also looking for a reinforcement in the attack and have now turned to the Ghanaian to help the side.
The Arnhemmers are still missing Tim Matavz, who is recovering from a fibula fracture. In addition, Hilary Gong and Charly Musonda are also still in the sick bay.
Dauda, ??born in Ghana, hopes to do better at Vitesse than his namesake Abiola Dauda.
The Nigerian striker came into action only 29 times in three seasons, in which he scored nine goals. Read Full Story